Garry Wills is a noted critic of Madison’s argument in Federalist No. Beard argue that No. Theoretic politicians, who have patronized this species of government, have erroneously supposed, that by reducing mankind to a perfect equality in their political rights, they would, at the same time, be perfectly equalized and assimilated in their possessions, their opinions, and their passions. House of Representatives from Virginia — , Secretary of State — , and ultimately the fourth President of the United States And he is able to take for granted a reasonably broad consensus as to the existence if not the content of the public good. The causes cannot be removed because the propensity to disagree is “sown in the nature of man,” arising particularly from the fact that man is “fallible” and his “opinions and his passions With equal, nay with greater reason, a body of men, are unfit to be both judges and parties, at the same time; yet, what are many of the most important acts of legislation, but so many judicial determinations, not indeed concerning the rights of single persons, but concerning the rights of large bodies of citizens; and what are the different classes of legislators, but advocates and parties to the causes which they determine?

This concept is thin insofar as the demand to this point does not speak to the content of that good, only to its objective existence. He then argues that the only problem comes from majority factions because the principle of popular sovereignty should prevent minority factions from gaining power. These were in essence a military alliance between sovereign nations adopted to better fight the Revolutionary War. Beard identified Federalist No. The distribution of small economic advantages by a positive state dissolves that assumption by making it less expensive for each taxpayer to finance his minimal share of a given subsidy than it would be to organize the majority to resist it. The question instead, Olson teaches, is whether each of them individually bears enough cost for each individual string to justify the cost to each of cutting it. The Anti-Federalist belief that the wide disparity in the economic interests of the various states would lead to controversy was perhaps realized in the American Civil War , which some scholars attribute to this disparity.


Madison happened to be in New York on official business at the time and agreed to assist Hamilton as well, and ultimately ended up authoring nearly 40 percent of the series. Federalist Archived January 13,at the Wayback Machinenote 1.

essay #10 of the federalist

The friend of popular governments, never finds himself so much alarmed for their character and fate, as when he contemplates their propensity to this dangerous vice. Enlightened statesmen will not always be at the helm. Whereas David Hume’s analysis of parties said that those based on self-interest were the most excusable while those based on passions were the most dangerous, Madison warns of the reverse. Alexander Hamiltonthe author of Federalist No.

This is, to be sure, no small request amid the temptations of technology and other social forces that encourage factious behavior. Anti-Federalist writers began to publish essays and letters arguing against ratification, [7] and Alexander Hamilton recruited James Madison and John Jay to write a series of pro-ratification letters in response.

essay #10 of the federalist

As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed. There are two methods of curing the mischiefs of faction: The main organizer and architect of the campaign was Alexander Hamilton, a New York lawyer who had been a delegate to the Philadelphia convention. Retrieved February 16, It distorts, scrambling the signal and preventing its reception. Does this advantage consist in the substitution of representatives, whose enlightened views and virtuous sentiments render them superior to local prejudices, and to schemes of injustice?

Federalist No. 10 – Wikipedia

This page was last edited on 28 Aprilat Volume 1, Chapter 4, Document Hence the number of representatives in the two cases not being in proportion to that of the constituents, and being proportionally greatest in the small federalisf, it follows, that if tye proportion of fit characters be not less in the large than in the small republic, tbe former will present a greater option, and consequently a greater probability of a fit choice.

They wanted a republic diverse enough to prevent faction but with enough commonality to maintain cohesion among the states. Constitutional mechanisms like judicial review, then, might be used to inhibit factions. The operation of the republican principle assumes that a public good exists and that a majority, placed in conditions favorable to deliberation, will be able to discover a reasonable approximation of it.


By a faction, I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of rssay, or of interest, adversed to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.

Twelve of these essays are disputed over by some scholars, though the modern consensus is that Madison wrote essays Nos. Justice Clarence Thomasfor example, invoked Federalist No. It is also ascendant in readings of Federalist No. If both fededalist to refuse to ratify, the Union would probably fail. By what means is this object attainable? What Madison prevents is not faction, but action.

But it could not be less folly to abolish liberty, which is essential to political life, because it nourishes faction, than it would be to wish the annihilation of air, which is essential to animal life, because it imparts to fire its destructive agency.

If a faction #100 of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republican principle, which enables the majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote. Only 19 Federalists were elected to New York’s ratification convention, compared to the Anti-Federalists’ 46 delegates. Nor is it certain that we should want feeling altogether banished from the political realm.

Also, in a republic, the delegates both filter and refine the many demands of the people so as to prevent the type of frivolous claims that impede purely democratic governments.

Federalist No. 10

David Lee[David Hume series ed. The first date of publication and the newspaper name were recorded for each essay. Is a law proposed concerning private debts?

Civic education and political leadership that simply make citizens aware that one cost of economic micromanagement is breeding minority factions may help to clarify these choices.